Jews also traded in prime goods: “Jägglin Jew sold a horse, which the prince took to Bohemia, for 84 fl.”[R34].

Many other types of assets could serve as security: Jerg Hoz and his stepmother demand the return of a ploughing harness from the heirs of Jekhoff (G1) that had been deposited as pawn sixteen years earlier. Jonas Jew (G1.4), Jekhoff’s son, responded for himself and his brother Marumb (G1.3) that they were not aware of this matter and had to look it up in their books. They were also going to consult with their brother (G1.1) in Lengnau [R1889].

Jewish business books probably contained amounts written in Indo-Arabic numerals, but the text was in Yiddish spelled with Hebrew letters. The Stühlingen records describe at least nineteen incidents where Jewish merchants had to present their business ledgers in court, either as plaintiffs or as defendants to argue their case. Receipts too often bore inscriptions in Hebrew letters. In such cases, the courts could either accept the writer’s testimony or call a trustworthy Jew as expert translator [R1401].

Some degree of specialization existed among the merchants. Lemble Weil (R1.1.1), who initially had traded in the full spectrum of goods allowed to Jews, by the 1690s sold mainly nails, cloth, linen, silk, and ribbons [R113]. The Jews also did business with the count’s court. Some were straightforward sales and purchases of horses [R1014]. But in 1619 the Jews collectively gave a loan of 100 fl. to the dominion, of which 10 fl. was used to pay off a loan to Jeggle (C2) and 90 fl. to the mason for the reconstruction of Castle Hohenlupfen [R1517]. Another transaction illustrates the whole complexity of the credit instruments:

Hürzel (B1.2.1) sells a claim of 30 fl. for 24 fl. to the dominion from which he uses 14 fl. for his own protection fee and 10 fl. for the protection fee of his stepbrother Jeslin Jew” [R1509].

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Source: https://www.stuehlingen.online/Book/?page_id=1675